Neo-Paganism Timeline: 1967 & on

Religious studies scholar, Sarah Pike, marks the incorporation of Ferafe­ria and the founding of NROOGD in 1967 as the begin­ning of the Neo-Pagan movement.


Fred Adams’ Feraferia is incorporated.

Aidan Kelly, E.l.f. Silverlocke, Glen Turner, and Judy Green­wood found the New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn (NROOGD) in San Francisco.

Oberon Zell files for incorporation of the Church of All Worlds as a “church.” Official status was granted in 1968, making it the first Neo-Pagan state-recognized church. Zell begins using the term, “Neo-Pagan,” to describe the new religion.

Samuel Kramer publishes his findings that the Sumerian Du­muzi (Babylonian Tammuz) was a Dying and Reviving God.

Lynn White publishes “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis.”


The film, Rosemary’s Baby, premieres. It is later described as the most influential occult movie of all time.

The Apollo 8 crew photographs the famous “Earthrise” photo, which is credited with helping many people realize the fragility of the Earth.

Carlos Castaneda publishes The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowing. Together with Mircea Eliade’s Shamanism, pub­lished in 1964, it stimulates interest in Shamanism and indige­nous spirituality.

Isaac Bonewits joins the RDNA and the organization becomes more explicitly Neo-Pagan.

W.I.T.C.H. (Women’s International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell) in New York stages a “hexing” of Wall Street, a combina­tion of street theater, protest, and feminist Witchcraft ritual.

The Church of All Worlds begins publishing the Green Egg newslet­ter, which soon becomes the most important Neo-Pagan forum for many years. It is instrumental in the formation of an emerging identity around the word “Neopagan” (later just “Pa­gan”).

The American Counterculture movement peaks.

The Whole Earth Catalog begins publication and becomes a bi­ble for the back-to-the-land movement.

Paul R. Ehrlich publishes The Population Bomb.

The term, “biological diversity,” is first used by wildlife scientist and conservationist, Raymond Dasmann. It is not widely adopted until the 1980s.


Andrew Fleming publishes the article, “The Myth of the Mother-Goddess,” demonstrating that the archaeological evi­dence cited in favor of prehistoric Goddess worship was suscepti­ble to other interpretations.

Donna Cole (Shultz) is initiated into a Gardnerian coven and later forms the first Pagan Way grove, eventually called the “Tem­ple of the Pagan Way.”

Hans Holzer publishes The Truth about Witchcraft, an early at­tempt to promote Paganism and Wicca.

Wiccan traditions begin to multiply over the next decade.

Ed Fitch, Joseph Wilson, Thomas Giles, and Tony Kelly begin circulating Fitch’s “Outer Court Book of Shadows” and his Pa­gan Way materials. Autonomous Pagan Way groves begin spread­ing across the U.S. In the UK, the movement was called the “Pagan Movement,” which later evolved into the Pagan Federa­tion.


The first Earth Day is celebrated and 20 million people come out for the event.

The Church of the Eternal Source is founded as an Egyptian recon­structionist group.

The Church of All Worlds becomes the first Neo-Pagan group to be given non-profit status by the IRS.

NROOGD conducts its first Eleusinian ritual on the autumnal equinox.

Aidan Kelly publishes a Pagan/Craft Calendar, assigning the name, “Mabon,” to the fall equinox.

Mother Earth News is founded, promoting sustainable living prac­tices.

New York’s Central Park is the site of a “Witch-In,” attended by over 1,000 people.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is created.

The first “Rainbow Gathering” occurs near Granby Lake in Colo­rado.


Aidan Kelly and other members of NROOGD meet Victor and Cora Anderson. The Faerie Tradition and NROOGD begin to cross-pollinate.

The first American Aquarian Festival of Astrology and the Oc­cult Sciences, later called “Gnosticon,” is organized by Carl Weschcke in Minneapolis.

Fred Adams begins publishing the newsletter of Feraferia, Korytha­lia.

Following a vision the year previous, Oberon Zell publishes his article, “Theagenesis: The Birth of the Goddess,” a Gaia-like vi­sion of a living planet, several years before James Lovelock popu­larized the idea.

Janet and Stewart Farrar leave Alex Sanders’ coven to found their own. They become two of the most influential Wiccan au­thors, starting with the publication of What Witches Do.

Morgan McFarland and Mark Roberts create the gender-inclu­sive Dianic Witchcraft tradition in Texas, now called “McFarland Dianic” Witchcraft.

Zsuzsanna Budapest founds the Susan B. Anthony Coven No. 1 in Los Angeles, practicing feminist Dianic Witchcraft, an exclu­sively women’s tradition. American Neo-Wicca comes to be inextri­cably tied with the feminist spirituality movement.

Llewellyn publishes a version of the hitherto secret Gardnerian Book of Shadows provided by Jessie Bell (“Lady Sheba”).

A talk given by Julie Carter of the Church of All Worlds to a women’s group at the WorldCon science-fiction convention in Los Angeles marks the beginning of the Goddess Movement.

The UK-based Pagan Federation is organized.

Pictures of a NROOGD Beltane ritual appear in a Look magazine article entitled, “Witches Are Rising.”

Greenpeace is founded.


The iconic photo “Blue Marble,” the first photograph in which the Earth is in full view, is taken by the Apollo 17 crew.

Arne Naess coins the term, “deep ecology,” to express the idea that nature has intrinsic value apart from its usefulness to hu­man beings.

Gloria Steinem describes the matriarchal origins of prehistoric society in her book, Wonder Woman.

TIME magazine publishes an issue titled, “The Occult Revival: A Substitute Faith,” describing Anton LeVey’s Satanism and the Neo-Pagan NROOGD tradition.

The first attempt at a Pagan ecumenical organization, the Coun­cil of Themis, is organized by the Church of All Worlds, Ferafe­ria, and other Pagan groups.

Oberon Zell and Julie Carter begin a tour of Californian Pagan groups. They meet Ed Fitch, Fred and Svetlana Adams, Isaac Bone­wits, Aidan Kelly, Victor and Cora Anderson, and other lead­ers in the emerging Pagan community.

The Limits to Growth is published by the Club of Rome, which pro­vides computer modeling of exponen­tial economic and population growth with finite planetary re­sources. Two of the three scenarios predict collapse of the global system in the mid- to latter part of the 21st century.

The UN’s first major conference on international environmental issues, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environ­ment, is held.

The insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is banned in the U.S.

Deforestation of the Amazon forest accelerates following the open­ing of highways deep into the forest.


Another attempt at Pagan ecumenicalism, the Council of Earth Religions, is organized.

Mary Daly publishes Beyond God the Father.

Alex Dobkin releases her album, Lavender Jane Loves Women, which contains the track, “Her Precious Love,” a tribute to the Mother Goddess.

Robin Morgan, one of the founding members of W.I.T.C.H., comes out as a Dianic Witch at a feminist conference in Los Ange­les. She concludes her keynote address by quoting from the “Charge of the Goddess.”

Joseph Wilson creates the 1734 Tradition based on correspond­ence with Robert Cochrane.

The Wicker Man film is released.

OPEC announces an oil embargo against the United States.

F. Schumacher publishes Small Is Beautiful.

Paul Shepard publishes The Tender Carnivore and the Sacred Game, exploring the role that sustained contact with nature has in healthy human psychological development.


Zell and Morning Glory are married in a public Pagan handfast­ing in Minneapolis. Isaac Bonewits and Carolyn Clark officiate. Margot Adler sings Gwydion Pendderwen’s songs.

The short-lived First Ecumenical Pagan Council is founded.

Raymond Buckland publishes The Tree: The Complete Book of Saxon Witchcraft, offering a method for performing a self-initia­tion.

The Green Egg publishes an article entitled “How to Form Your Own Coven,” marking the beginning of the end of the hegem­ony of British Traditional Wicca in America.

Selena Fox founds Circle Wicca in Madison, Wisconsin. It be­comes incorporated in 1978. It also begins the Pagan sanctuary movement.

The Council of American Witches adopts a document titled “Princi­ples of Wiccan Belief,” which defines the central belief system of Neo-Pagan Witchcraft for the general public. The Princi­ples are incorporated into the U.S. Army handbook for chap­lains.

The periodical, WomanSpirit, begins publishing articles, poetry, and rituals, exploring the Divine Feminine.

Marija Gimbutas publishes The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe (republished in 1982 as The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe), which popularizes the theory of matriarchal prehistory.

The first warnings about damage to stratospheric ozone due to chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are published.

Annie Dillard publishes Pilgrim at Tinker Creek. She is hailed as the “female Thoreau.”

Gary Snyder publishes Turtle Island, calling for a return “back to the Pleistocene!”

The world human population reaches 4 billion.


Isaac Bonewits founds the Aquarian Anti-Defamation League.

Doreen Valiente publishes An ABC of Witchcraft, stating that initia­tion is not necessary to become a Witch.

Starhawk founds her Compost coven.

Zsuzsanna Budapest publishes The Feminist Book of Light and Shadows, later republished as The Holy Book of Women’s Myster­ies.

The Covenant of the Goddess is formed. It becomes a national organization dedicated to encouraging networking among cov­ens and providing credentials for Wiccan priests and priestesses. Membership is eventually extended to solitaries.

Thomas deLong, a.k.a. Gwydion Pendderwen, releases his first album, Songs for the Old Religion.

Greenpeace protesters place themselves between whales and Soviet whalers. Footage of the encounter spreads across the world.

Edward Abbey publishes The Monkeywrench Gang, which in­spires the radical environmentalism movement.


The Aquarian Tabernacle Church is founded by Pete Davis.

The Midwest Pagan Council is formed.

The Pan Pagan Festival is held in Indiana, the first national out­door Pagan festival. 80 people attend. Within four years, attend­ance grows to 600. Pagan festivals have since proliferated and led to the formation of a decentralized community with shared songs, chants, rituals, and culture.

Merlin Stone publishes When God was a Woman.

The Fellowship of Isis is formed, dedicated to promoting all God­dess traditions.

Morgan McFarland leads 1,000 women in the opening ceremony of the Women’s Spirituality Conference in Boston, introducing many to Neo-Pagan Witchcraft.

The Green Egg dissolves.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production in the U.S.

Herman Slater begins publishing Earth Religion News.


The Minoan Brotherhood, a Pagan tradition for gay men, is founded by Ed Buczynski.

The Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) publishes “Cakes for the Queen of Heaven,” a 10-session workshop on feminist spiritual­ity.

Mary Beth Edelson’s play, Your Five Thousand Years Are Up, premi­eres in California.

Defrocked Catholic priest, Matthew Fox, founds the Institute of Culture and Creation Spirituality. Starhawk later joins the fac­ulty.

Joseph Wilson founds the Temple of the Elder Gods (TOTEG), an attempt to discover locale-specific ways to worship gods and one’s ancestors.


The US Army publishes “Religious Requirements and Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains,” which includes chapters on Wicca and Witchcraft.

Doreen Valiente publishes Witchcraft for Tomorrow, which in­cludes a complete Book of Shadows and a ritual for self-initia­tion.

Carol Christ gives the keynote address at the University of Califor­nia at Santa Cruz Extension Conference, later published as “Why Women Need the Goddess.” It is considered the single most influential article in the Goddess Movement.

The Love Canal contamination is discovered.

Susan Griffin publishes Woman and Nature.


Naomi Goldenberg publishes The Changing of the Gods: Feminism and the End of Traditional Religions, coining the term, “thealogy.”

Starhawk publishes The Spiral Dance: a Rebirth of the Ancient Reli­gion of the Great Goddess.

Margot Adler publishes Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Dru­ids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Ad­ler’s book, together with Starhawk’s, become catalysts for the Neo-Pagan movement.

Selena Fox’s Circle is covered by TIME magazine in an article entitled, “Religion: Preaching Pan, Isis, and Om.” The article opens with an account and a photo of a handfasting performed by Selena Fox at the Pan Pagan Festival. Selena Fox and other Pagans are later featured in a PBS documentary, People maga­zine, and other media. The coverage is positive.

James Lovelock publishes Gaia, which popularizes the Gaia Hypoth­esis.

Circle publishes Paganism’s first networking sourcebook, The Circle Guide to Wicca and Pagan Resources, stimulating community building within and across geographical areas and traditions.

The Three Mile Island accident becomes the worst nuclear power accident in U.S. history. Mass anti-nuclear demonstra­tions begin.

Starhawk and Diane Baker found the Reclaiming tradition in San Francisco, bringing together Feri and Dianic Witchcraft and feminist, peace, and environmental activism.


The Pan-Pagan Festival is held in Indiana. Almost 800 people attend.

Michael Harner publishes The Way of the Shaman: A Guide to Power and Healing, the first practical text on Neo-Shamanism.

Carol Merchant publishes The Death of Nature, which identifies the Enlightenment as the beginning of the paradigm shift to view­ing nature as inert, rather than vital.

EarthSpirit is founded by Andras Corban Arthen to provide net­working for Neo-Pagans and others following an Earth-centered spiritual path.

The radical environmental group, EarthFirst!, is founded.

Jean Auel publishes Clan of the Cave Bear.


Janet and Stewart Farrar publish the Alexandrian Book of Shad­ows in The Witches’ Bible: The Complete Witches’ Handbook.

Pagan Spirit Gathering, which eventually becomes one of the oldest and largest of the Pagan festivals, holds its first annual gathering, a week-long festival over the summer solstice.


Thomas deLong, a.k.a. Gwydion Pendderwen, dies in a car acci­dent.

The Georgia Supreme Court rules, in Roberts v. Ravenwood Church of Wicca, that Wicca is a religion and that the Raven­wood church is entitled to tax exempt status.

Archeologist Marija Gimbutas republishes her 1974 book, The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe, with the new name, The God­desses and Gods of Old Europe. With this and subsequent books, she becomes the archaeologist most closely linked with the God­dess Movement.


The Re-formed Congregation of the Goddess is incorporated and becomes the first legally recognized religion serving the God­dess community.

Isaac Bonewits forms Ar nDraiocht Fein (ADF) (“Our Own Druid­ism”), which eventually becomes the largest Neo-Druidic organization in America.


Arne Naess and George Sessions go on a camping trip in Death Valley, where they conceive the deep ecology platform.

E. O. Wilson coins the term, “biophilia,” to describe the biological drive of human beings to seek connection with the rest of life.

Marion Zimmer Bradley publishes The Mists of Avalon, a feminist and Neo-Pagan retelling of the myth of King Arthur.

Janet and Stewart Farrar publish The Witches Way, which fleshes out some of the philosophy of Wicca. It is strongly influenced by Jungian psychology.


Three pieces of federal legislation, including the Helms Amend­ment, are introduced in Congress, which would have taken away tax exempt status for Wiccan churches. Lady Liberty League, which promotes the religious freedom of Pagans, emerges as a result of nationwide Pagan networking and success­fully defeats the legislation.

The Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) is orga­nized, which provides education and credentials for Pagan clergy. This signals the growth of Pagan membership in the Unitar­ian Universalist Association, which, up to that point, had been predominately humanist/atheist.

The use of the terms, “Paganism,” “Wicca,” and “magick,” begin a gradual increase in publishing.

The Antarctic ozone hole is discovered.

Joanna Macy and John Seed hold the first Council of all Beings in Sydney, Australia, a ritual process that helps participants to see the world from the perspective of other-than-human beings.


The Fourth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals decides, in Dettmer v. Landon, a prisoner’s rights case, that Wicca is a religion for the purposes of the Free Exercise Clause.

The UK band, the Pretenders, releases “Hymn to Her,” a Wiccan ode, which becomes #8 in the UK.

Margot Adler publishes a revised and expanded edition of Draw­ing Down the Moon.

The Witches League of Public Awareness is created by Laurie Cabot in Salem to help correct misconceptions about Witches and Witchcraft.

The World Wildlife Fund brings together religious authorities representing Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Juda­ism to prepare declarations regarding our responsibility to care for the Earth.


The world human population reaches 5 billion.


Scott Cunningham publishes Wicca: A Guide for the Solitary Practi­tioner, which becomes one of Llewellyn’s best-selling publica­tions. The book is credited with making solitary practice respectable.

The year following Joseph Campbell’s death, PBS broadcasts The Power of Myth, a series of interviews with Campbell by Bill Mo­yers, which presented his ideas regarding myth and psychology to a much wider audience.

Oberon Zell revives the Green Egg.

The hottest summer in history up to that point. Atmospheric CO2 levels exceed 350 parts per million. NASA scientist, James Hansen, testifies before Congress that this is the safe upper limit to avoid catastrophic climate change.

The term, “biodiversity,” first appears in a publication by sociobiologist E. O. Wilson.


Starhawk publishes a revised and updated edition of The Spiral Dance.

The Canadian National Film Board’s documentary, Goddess Remem­bered, premiers. Starhawk and Merlin Stone are featured.

The Exxon Valdez creates the largest oil spill in U.S. history.


Earth Day mobilizes 200 million people in 141 countries. Approxi­mately a million gather in Central Park in New York City.

The first ecopsychology conference is held in Cambridge.

Panthea in Chicago becomes the first Pagan congregation of the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations (UUA).

The Starwood festival begins to include workshops on drum­ming. Drum circles become ubiquitous at Pagan festivals and other Pagan events.

The Captain Planet animated series airs.


Access to the World Wide Web expands. The number of Pagan websites grows. The rapid increase in the availability of infor­mation on Paganism drives the growth of non-traditional, eclec­tic, and solitary Paganism, as well as teen interest in Paganism.

Aidan Kelly publishes Crafting the Art of Magic, which identifies the literary sources of Gerald Gardner’s Book of Shadows, casting doubt on Gardner’s claims to have been initiated into a survival of an ancient Witchcraft religion.

The term, “nature religion,” is coined by religious studies scholar, Catherine Albanese, in her book, Nature Religion in America.

The world’s worst oil spill in history occurs in Kuwait during the U.S. war with Iraq. Kuwaiti oil fires burn a billion barrels of oil.


Theodore Roszak coins the term, “ecopsychology,” in The Voice of the Earth. The ecopsychology field is founded.

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is drafted at the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro.

The term, “ecological footprint,” is coined by William Rees.

Daniel Quinn publishes Ishmael, which encourages interest in the anarcho-primitivism movement.


The Covenant of the Goddess is represented at the Parliament of the World’s Religions in Chicago. Phyllis Curot leads a Pagan ceremony at a nearby park. Roman Catholic Archbishop Bernar­din supports the action, resulting in national press coverage for Pagans.


The Minneapolis Star Tribune reports that the Twin Cities Metro­politan area has been dubbed “Paganistan” (a term coined by Steven Posch).

The journal of the Pagan Federation changes its name from “The Wiccan” to “Pagan Dawn,” reflecting a broader Pagan member­ship.


The Unitarian Universalist Assembly votes to acknowledge “earth-centered” spirituality in its by-laws as a major source of UUA beliefs. Two years earlier, the UUA includes Goddess and Earth-centered songs in its new hymnal.

Actress Cybill Shepherd comes out as Pagan at the Golden Globe Awards and thanks the Great Mother Goddess.


Witchcraft becomes televised again with Sabrina: the Teenage Witch. The movie The Craft is released the same year, and is cred­ited with bringing many adolescents into Pagan Witch­craft. Over the next two years, the television series, Buffy the Vam­pire Slayer and Charmed, air. J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone is published, and Practical Magic appears in theaters. These TV shows, movies, and books portray heroic protag­onists who are witches. It also marks the beginning of an increasing commer­cialization of Witchcraft.

Toteg is reconstituted by Joseph Wilson.


Wren Walker and Fritz Jung found WitchVox, an internet Pagan resource center. The site will grow to be the largest Pagan inter­net site.

Pomegranate, the first academic journal of Pagan Studies, is cre­ated.

The first non-Wiccan president of the Pagan Federation is elected.

The Kyoto Protocol is negotiated in Kyoto, Japan, committing countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. The U.S. rejects the Kyoto Protocol in 1999.


The first Pagan Pride Day is held in Indianapolis, Indiana.


Ronald Hutton publishes The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. His work more or less ends the contro­versy over the origins of modern Witchcraft.

Starhawk publishes a 20th anniversary revised and updated edi­tion of The Spiral Dance.

Doreen Valiente dies.

World human population reaches 6 billion.


Cynthia Eller publishes The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won’t Give Women a Future.

Cherry Hill Seminary begins conducting online classes.


The term, “fluffy,” (later “fluffybunny”) is popularized by the au­thor of the internet essay, “Why Wiccans Suck.” The term, which refers to Wicca that has been watered down to make it palatable for mass consumption, goes viral.


The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Paganism is published.

Angie Buchanan is elected to the Board of Trustees for the Coun­cil for a Parliament of the World’s Religions, one of the most re­spected interfaith organizations in the world.


Canada releases religious data from the 2001 census that shows that Wiccans and other Pagans experienced the greatest percent­age growth (almost 300%) of all religions in the country.


The Wild Hunt blog is relaunched by Jason Pitzl-Waters and be­comes the leading voice for analysis and insight into how mod­ern Pagans are represented within the mainstream media.

Alta Mira Press launches a Pagan Studies series with the collec­tion, Researching Paganisms, to be followed by Chas Clifton’s Her Hidden Children in 2006 and Barbara Davy’s An Introduction to Pagan Studies in 2007.


Bron Taylor publishes the 1900-page Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature with over 250 contributors.

The name, “Generation Hex,” is coined for a subgroup of GenX.


Margot Adler publishes a revised edition of Drawing Down the Moon.

An Inconvenient Truth premiers, about former U.S. Vice President, Al Gore’s, campaign to educate citizens about global warm­ing with a slideshow.


The first Pagan seminary, Cherry Hill Seminary, is granted tax-exempt status.

The US Veteran’s Administration approves the pentacle as a sym­bol on headstones for fallen soldiers in military cemeteries. Other Pagan and Heathen symbols are later added.


Patheos is founded as an inter-faith blogging platform. It be­comes the largest internet presence for Pagan writers.

The subprime mortgage market collapse leads to the most seri­ous financial crisis since the Great Depression.


The Sacred Paths Center opens in Minnesota. At the time, it was the only full-time non-profit Pagan community center in the U.S.

James Cameron’s film, Avatar, premiers.


The New Jersey Board of Education is the first to accept Pagan holidays as excused absences.

Deepwater Horizon creates the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry.

Isaac Bonewits dies.


Debates surrounding transgender inclusiveness in Pagan spaces marks the beginning of a shift in Pagan consciousness on gender issues.

The Fukushima nuclear reactor melts down.

The Occupy movement begins.

The world human population reaches 7 billion.


Wicca and Paganism leave the Occult/New Age/Mind-Body-Spirit section of bookstores and move to the Religion section fol­lowing a change in how the books are coded.

Thor’s Hammer is approved for use on military headstones and grave markers.


Morning Glory-Zell dies.

The first People’s Climate March takes place in New York, draw­ing over 300,000 people, making it the largest climate march in history.

Peter Grey publishes his essay, “Rewilding Witchcraft,” calling for a radicalization of Witchcraft as a challenge to capitalist con­sumer culture.


“A Pagan Community Statement on the Environment” is re­leased. It collects almost 10,000 signatures from Pagans and Pa­gan allies. It is translated into 16 languages and collects signa­tures from 100 different countries. It is signed by practically every promi­nent Pagan organization and most of the high pro­file leaders in the Pagan community.

The Catholic Pope publishes his environmental encyclical, Laud­ato Si’.

Alex Mar publishes Witchcraft in America.

Gods & Radicals is organized as a forum for Pagan anarchist and anti-capitalist writing.


Witches gather to hex Donald Trump in front of Trump Tower.

Another public hexing is organized, this time of rapist, Brock Allen Turner, and the judge who imposed a light sentence on Turner.


A second People’s Climate March takes place in Washington, D.C., drawing 200,000, plus tens of thousands more to 300 other locations in the U.S. and around the world.

The Texas-based Fort Hood Open Circle is vandalized.

About two dozen Pagan writers at Patheos leave the forum in protest of the Evangelical Christian owners’ support of anti-LGBT organizations and the increased corporate control over the content of writing at Patheos.


The “beauty” product company, Sephora, capitalizes on interest in Witchcraft by releasing a “Witch Starter Kit,” which is later recalled after protest.

Witches organize a mass hexing of then-nominee for the Su­preme Court, Brett Kavanaugh. Witchcraft begins to be more widely per­ceived as a form of political resistance. Michael Hughes publishes Magic for the Resistance: Rituals and Spells for Change and Laura Tempest Zakroff publishes The New Aradia: A Witch’s Handbook for Magical Resistance. The following year, Da­vid Salisbury publishes Witchcraft Activism: A Toolkit for Magical Resistance.

2018 is dubbed by some as the “Year of the Witch.”


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports that civilization has 12 years to avoid climate catastrophe.

Select Bibliography for Timeline

Margot Adler, Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshipers, and Other Pagans in America Today (1979, 1986, 2006)

David Burnett, Dawning of the Pagan Moon (1991)

Circle Sanctuary, “History of Circle Sanctuary” []

Chas Clifton, Her Hidden Children: The Rise of Paganism and Wicca in America (2006)

Kathryn Downey, “Spiritual Dandelions,” in Feminist Foremoth­ers in Women’s Studies, Psychology, and Mental Health (1995)

Robert Ellwood & Harry Partin, Religious and Spiritual Groups in Modern America (1988)

Robert Ellwood, “Notes on a Neopagan Religious Group in Amer­ica,” History of Religions, 11:1 (1971)

Ed Fitch, A Grimoire of Shadows (1996); excerpts in Sylvana Silver­Witch, “Ed Fitch: Revealing the Craft,” Widdershins, 1:2 (1995)

Ben Gruagach, The Wiccan Mystic: Exploring a Magickal Spiritual Path (2007)

Mike Howard, “Gerald Gardner: The Man, the Myth & the Mag­ick” [ 1.htm]

Ronald Hutton, “The Roots of Modern Paganism,” in Charlotte Hardman & Graham Harvey (eds.), Paganism Today (1996)

Ronald Hutton, The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pa­gan Witchcraft (1999)

Aidan, Kelly, “History of Neopagan and Magickal Groups in the USA and Canada”

Aidan Kelly, “Notes on Gardnerian History”

Aidan Kelly, Hippie Commie Beatnik Witches: A History of the Craft in California, 1967-77 (2011)

Frederic Lamond, Fifty Years of Wicca (2005)

James R. Lewis, Witchcraft Today: An Encyclopedia of Wiccan and Neopagan Traditions (1999)

Deborah Lipp & Isaac Bonewits, The Study of Witchcraft: A Guide­book to Advanced Wicca (2007)

  1. D. Muntean, “Wicca After Starhawk” (1995) [http://pagantheo]

Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance [http://www.religious]

Loretta Orion, Never Again the Burning Times: Paganism Revived (1995)

Joanne Pearson, “Demarcating the Field: Paganism, Wicca, and Witchcraft,” DISKUS, 6 (2000) [ us1-6/Pearson6.txt]

Sarah Pike, New Age and Neopagan Religions in America (2004)

Shelley Rabinovitch & James R. Lewis (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Modern Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism (2002)

Starhawk, The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Goddess (1979, 1999, 2009)

“The McFarland Dianics—A Chronology” [http://www.mcfar]

David Waldron, The Sign of the Witch: Modernity and the Pagan Revival (2008)

David & Sharn Waldron, “Jung and the Neo-Pagan Movement,” Quadrant, 34:2 (2004)

Joseph Wilson, “Warts and All” (2003) [http://www.shadowdance. org/toteg/warts.html]